Most tests choose the dissertation as a text genre, which will require a certain amount of argumentation from the student. In addition to having arguments, the student needs to know how to connect ideas, which in the whole of the work gives a good idea to the evaluator about the university’s ability to express himself / herself.
Here we list 8 essay topics that, from topics that are in evidence at the present time, may fall on the Enem and the evidence. These are subjects for you to follow in the newspapers, on the subjects of the classes, besides trying to reflect on how to argue. One tip is to try to see “pros and cons” of each view. Another suggestion is to think about causes and consequences. Check out the list of themes, which are developed following:
False news and critical sense
Fake news, also called fake news in English, has gained prominence in social networking times. Coming from humorous sites, such as The Bairrista and The Sensationalist, or from pages of deliberately lying pages, these news spread quickly and, as a rule, few worry about checking their veracity.
The problem is that people form opinions based on incorrect information, and end up guiding certain actions based on these fabricated or misleading data – hence some say that “the internet makes us dumber.” The writing theme can explore the issue of critical sense, the exercise of reading and understanding, and connecting various information to the formation of opinion.
It can also bet on a debate between the power of information transmission, linking fake news to the democratization of communication, since today anyone can disseminate information to a large number of people – 30 years ago, it was essentially the mass media who held this power.
Another angle, however, may be that of mass manipulation in times of great political and economic upheaval, for example. Imagine telling someone who lost their savings in 1992 when Collor blocked the savings (do not you know what that was?) So the current government wants to do the same: even if it’s a lie, you can be sure that the panic goes appear in the eyes of those who hear.
Labor rights in danger?
Here the possibilities for approach are very wide, precisely because there are many projects in Congress that have won the pages of newspapers in the last year and that seek to alter one or another of the so-called labor rights. Today, the term is more freely associated with the CLT (Consolidation of Labor Laws) of 1943, Vargas New Age period (hey, there is one more class here on the subject!). Paid vacation, 13th salary, FGTS, INSS, retirement, all are terms that seem to surround the subject.
Therefore, we believe that it is worth having the concept of each of these things firmly in your head, in order to be able to advance in ideas no matter what they appear. It is to be expected that pension reform, that is, changes in retirement, tends to be a strong candidate. Be aware of the history of the benefit, the context in which it was created, similarities and differences with the present moment, and especially the perspectives of the experts of different political-economic currents on the subject. We have several arguments about this in this text.
Old contemporaries and classics
The discussion about retirement can bring to the fore another issue that has not yet been discussed in mass media in Brazil, which is the care of the elderly. Different from classical antiquity, in which the elders were the wise, the elders, respected for the accumulated knowledge of their years of life, now tend to see the third age as one in which people are “a burden”, useless, incapable.
Other stereotypes present this portion of the population as a source of expenditure, in addition to being economically inactive, in need of constant medical care, even as guilty of overcrowding of the public health system. These visions shock a series of ideas about what makes the person’s humanity, who deserve care, material goods, affective, rights.
According to IBGE data for 2016, 17% of the population receives retirement. Therefore, the theme may appear strongly. It is a portion of Brazilians just marginalized in a society that at the same time praises the growth of the expectation from 52.3 years in 1960 to 73.4 years in 2010. What do we do for our old? And what does the generation of adults today teach to the youngest about a future that tends to have people living more and more years? What do the younger ones expect to become of them when they have passed the 60’s mark? Again, you should have some cards up your sleeve to get the theme to the most comfortable side, be it human rights, economic, educational, health, etc.
High School Reform
Again, the historical aspect may be a bias towards argumentation. It is worth remembering that the school started restricted to the members of the church and the nobility, back in Europe, and that only from the Renaissance humanism was extended to the total population. In Brazil, universities began for the sons of nobles, and only in 1946 did the law oblige the state to offer (primary) education free of charge. Government student funding for college students is just over 15 years old.
Another possible way is to think about what education brings to the student’s life and for the development of the nation, and in what ways change curricular content can impact on both sides. Here we deal in more detail on the subject.
The offline world
OFFline?, you may wonder when reading the title. It is clear that the connected world, ONline, is a possible (and quite possible!) Topic, but the Enem and the vestibular have shown a tendency to approach the other side of certain questions, problematizing topics in which there is a certain common vision. Much is said about what connectivity has brought about change in the last few decades, but there is still much less debate about those who do not have access to the internet.
Depending on your living conditions, perhaps the idea of getting home and not having WiFi is a bit strange, but in Brazil only 26.7 million people connect via the home network, according to data from January 2017 of Anatel. A 2017 survey commissioned by Facebook indicates, however, that 70.5 million Brazilians do not even have any access to the internet. That’s right: neither WiFi, nor 3G / 4G. In Africa, the data are even more glaring: 75% of the local population does not connect to our beloved global computer network.
A writing theme can take the economic side, joining the offline world with the situation of poverty or social gaps in these countries. Another possible path is that of technological development, since the less you know what others are doing, the harder it is to be able to evolve on its own. Education also enters into this dance – you are now studying with the internet yourself. Seek to think about the causes and consequences of this offline world, and stay connected to the numbers that appear in the media on the subject.
Prisons and human rights
If you are of the opinion that good thug is dead thug, stop a second and breathe before continuing to read. In 2016, the Enem brought religious intolerance as its theme; in 2015, violence against women. Needless to say, then, controversial issues are on the rise, especially issues that have human rights as the background. Intolerance, violence, prejudice, extremism usually go very close. And it is worth remembering that the edict of proof warns that apology for violence, for example, is eliminatory. That is, you could argue in favor of the death penalty – where “punishment” presupposes judgment and conviction – but do not say something like “you have to shoot everyone.” Fascists were firing, dictatorial governments were firing. You are an aspiring university student, with the constitutional right of free expression, but it must also indicate respect for the diversity that you will find in the university environment. That is why the issue of prisons can be very slippery in this aspect of human rights (DH).
The trick here is to remember that DH means that there is a minimum dignity to which every human being has a right, be it a thug, a prisoner, an enemy, an ally, a woman, a child. Torture, for example, is prohibited, as is slavery. So stay tuned so you do not set a trap for yourself.
Another approach to the subject can be economical, since public prisons generate costs for the state, but outsourcing prisons as well. The question is what cost pays off more, in what respect, for what reason. This is where you will defend your opinion. Finally, of course, the issue may appear from the point of view of public safety, where causes and consequences of overcrowding allow you to direct the text to the path you have to say: lack of access to education / consumer goods / basic infrastructure, recidivism due to lack of opportunities when the penalty ends, slowness of the judicial system, leakage, low valuation of prison staff, the list is huge. It is recommended that you have some reading on the topic and can play the text, within the theme, to use the information you have available.
Joke vs. humiliation
Another theme that has many paths to follow, and that can appear from many news, even older. Just because someone says it’s a joke does not mean it’s free. Today, you see and hear much less black jokes, because people (and audiences) can already identify that their “grace” is to diminish, to humiliate a person / character for being black. That is, it is not a joke, it is an act of racism, and racism is a crime. In 2016, many comedians stepped on the ball with “jokes” that had as motto the exposed bosom of women breastfeeding. But what “grace” is there in an act not only natural as recommended by any doctor?
Humor has sought new ways, but it is still mostly based on laughing at some feature of a being, hanging on to humiliation. Hence the relevance that a theme such as grace could have for writing, leading the student to reflect on stereotypes, diversity, bullying, opinion formation, self-criticism. The rise in comedy shows in recent years, especially on video sites such as YouTube, where anybody can make fun of virtually any and every fact, has also raised the debate about what can and can not be done in terms of humor. In fact, it is worth noting that many channels seek grace, even in the prejudice contained in more “traditional” jokes. Still in the virtual environment, you can debate the use of humor in social media marketing actions, which have used a relaxed language and often made humor in posts that end up “backfiring” and generating negative repercussion due to humiliation (perhaps inadvertent ) of a portion of people.
The broader of all those mentioned here, this theme also ends up permeating most of the previous topics. In a context of economic crisis, and in the year when the Russian Revolution celebrates 100 years – in fact, the first general strike in Brazil as well – the clashes between different political-economic ideologies is a very strong candidate for the theme.
It is difficult to choose a single aspect to study in depth, given the spectrum of possibilities, so the tip is to start having on the tip of the tongue who are the famous communism, socialism and capitalism. Having names of authors such as Marx, Engels, Adam Smith, Hobbes in the head also helps to indicate to the evaluator that his text is not just a “I think” social networking post.
Note that what is called right and left in politics has a strong association with this view on the political and financial participation of the state in people’s lives. Try to remember how these visions were attacked by both sides in the election campaign, and as they are in statements of politicians on both sides of the ideological spectrum. A trick: Whenever you think “who pays the bill” or “who decides this,” one of those ideologies will be deep down. “SUS is crap” means that health is bad, but also indicates that the state pays for medical assistance to those who do not have the money to pay for themselves. “Taxes are too high” means that much money is given to the government, but it also implies that the function that money should have is not satisfactory.
As you may already know, no vision is necessarily right or wrong, so whatever your alignment it is perfectly valid. Note, on the other hand, that your positioning needs to be consistent, so the importance of knowing what each theory says. It is not worth, for example, to defend privatization, but to complain that the service is expensive, since private capital aims at profit (even if there is state regulation). It also goes without saying that a service should be public, but complain that the tax has grown, since “public” money comes largely from tax revenue.